For centuries, tidal currents had made ocean travel particularly difficult and risky for the ships that were then available, and as such there had been very little, if any, maritime contact between the peoples living in these continents. Between and , approximately , sailors engaged in the slave trade visited West Africa. In particular, European traders wanted to trade for gold , which could be found in western Africa, and also to find a maritime route to “the Indies” India , where they could trade for luxury goods such as spices without having to obtain these items from Middle Eastern Islamic traders. This diversity led Thornton to describe the initial “exploration of the Atlantic” as “a truly international exercise, even if many of the dramatic discoveries were made under the sponsorship of the Iberian monarchs”. That leadership later gave rise to the myth that “the Iberians were the sole leaders of the exploration”. Slavery in Africa Group of men, children, and women being taken to a slave market Slavery was practiced in some parts of Africa ,  Europe ,  Asia  and the Americas for many centuries before the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade. There is evidence that enslaved people from some parts of Africa were exported to states in Africa, Europe, and Asia prior to the European colonization of the Americas. The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries from the ninth to the nineteenth Four million enslaved people exported via the Red Sea , another four million  through the Swahili ports of the Indian Ocean , perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route, and eleven to twenty million depending on the author across the Atlantic Ocean.
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Schaetzl Abstract Data from new subsurface studies, lithologic analyses, radiocarbon dating, and geologic mapping demonstrate that an early middle Wisconsinan MIS 3 to late Wisconsonan MIS2 till sheet is more widespread in northcentral Iowa than previously assumed. Some of these shared properties, such as clasts of Pierre Shale, suggest a similar northwesterly provenance and glacial flow from the Keewatin Dome of the Laurentide Ice Sheet during both glaciations. Radiocarbon ages of organic materials within and beneath the Sheldon Creek Formation, as well as stratigraphic relationships in cores and outcrops, suggest that the unit accumulated during two distinct advances, herein named the Ft.
The presence of ice in Iowa before the regional Last Glacial Maximum has important implications for modeling buildup of the Laurentide Ice Sheet LIS and understanding the regional variability of ice sheet extent during the last glacial period. Existing models the LIS buildup are challenged by the pre-MIS 2 chronology reported here, which puts the ice sheet much farther south during MIS 3b than had previously been reported.
This points to a much earlier buildup of the Keewatin Dome than previously assumed.
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History[ edit ] Carbon Iowa is located on the Nodaway River. This was home to the Pottawatomie, Oto and Iowa Indian tribes until the treaty of forced their removal to Kansas or Indian Territory now known as Oklahoma. The first settler to Carbon was Elijah Walters, who established a sawmill there in He reported seeing huts, old camp fires but stated that the tribes had moved on, only to see an occasional “red man” appear and look over old camp sites and burial sites then move on. Elijah built a mill on the Nodaway river that became a great social center of its time.
The town was established in , but was not incorporated until
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One path of wine history could follow the developments and science of grape growing and wine production; another might separately trace the spread of wine commerce through civilization, but there would be many crossovers and detours between them. However the time line is followed, clearly wine and history have greatly influenced one another. Fossil vines, million-years-old, are the earliest scientific evidence of grapes.
The earliest written account of viniculture is in the Old Testament of the Bible which tells us that Noah planted a vineyard and made wine. As cultivated fermentable crops, honey and grain are older than grapes, although neither mead nor beer has had anywhere near the social impact of wine over recorded time. This Princess, having lost favor with the King, attempted to poison herself by eating some table grapes that had “spoiled” in a jar.
She became intoxicated and giddy and fell asleep. When she awoke, she found the stresses that had made her life intolerable had dispersed. Returning to the source of her relief, her subsequent conduct changed so remarkably that she regained the King’s favor.
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Constance Moore (January 18, , Sioux City, Iowa — September 16, in Los Angeles, California) was an American singer and actress. Her most noted work was in wartime musicals such as Show Business and Atlantic City and the classic movie serial Buck Rogers, in which she played Wilma Deering, the only female character in the serial.
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After serving in both World War II and the Korean War, Iowa was decommissioned on 24 February and entered the Atlantic Reserve Fleet at Philadelphia Naval remained in the Reserve Fleet until At this time, Iowa was moved to Avondale Shipyards near New Orleans, Louisiana, to undergo a modernization as part of President Ronald Reagan’s “ship Navy” plan.
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The University of Iowa Stanley Museum of Art houses one of the leading university art collections in the United States. The museum contains around 15, objects and pieces of art with many diverse origins. The art comes from virtually every medium, including painting, sculpture, drawing, photography, textiles, ceramics, and silver-working.
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The two explorers, along with their five crewmen, stepped ashore near where the Iowa river flowed into the Mississippi. It is believed that the voyage marked the first time that white people visited the region of Iowa. After surveying the surrounding area, the Frenchmen recorded in their journals that Iowa appeared lush, green, and fertile. For the next years, thousands of white settlers would agree with these early visitors: Iowa was indeed lush and green; moreover, its soil was highly productive.
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The term ” Aethiopian Ocean “, derived from Ancient Ethiopia , was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid th century. Extent of the Atlantic Ocean according to the IHO definition, excluding Arctic and Antarctic regions The International Hydrographic Organization IHO defined the limits of the oceans and seas in ,  but some of these definitions have been revised since then and some are not used by various authorities, institutions, and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook.
Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean. Mid-Atlantic Ridge The MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the other.
While nine of these have collectively been nominated a World Heritage Site for their geological value, four of them are considered of “Outstanding Universal Value” based on their cultural and natural criteria: Continental shelves in the Atlantic are wide off Newfoundland, southern-most South America, and north-eastern Europe. In the western Atlantic carbonate platforms dominate large areas, for example the Blake Plateau and Bermuda Rise.